OILY WASTEWATER TREATMENT USING EXPANDED BEDS OF ACTIVATED CARBON AND ZEOLITE
Sawsan A. M. Mohammed, Ibtihage Faisal and Maha M. Alwan
Chemical Engineering Department – College of Engineering – University of Baghdad – Iraq
Two types of adsorbents were used to treat oily wastewater, activated carbon and zeolite. The removal efficiencies of these materials were compared to each other. The results showed that activated carbon performed some better properties in removal of oil. The experimental methods which were employed in this investigation included batch and column studies. The former was used to evaluate the rate and equilibrium of carbon and zeolie adsorption, while the latter was used to determine treatment efficiencies and performance characteristics. Expanded bed adsorber was constructed in the column studies. In this study, the adsorption behavior of vegetable oil (corn oil) onto activated carbon and zeolite was examined as a function of the concentration of the adsorbate, contact time, adsorbent dosage and amount of coagulant salt(calcium sulphate) added . The adsorption data was modeled with Freundlich and Langmuir adsorption isotherms. and it was found that the adsorption process on activated carbon and zeolite fit the Freundlich isotherm model. The amount of oil adsorbed increased with increasing the contact time, but longer mixing duration did not increase residual oil removal from wastewater due to the coverage of the adsorbent surface with oil molecules. It was found that as the dosage of adsorbent increased, the percentage of residual oil removal also increased. The effects of adsorbent type and amount of coagulant salt(calcium sulphate) added on the breakthrough curve were studied in details in the column studies. Expanded bed behavior was modeled using the Richardson-Zaki correlation between the superficial velocity of the feed stream and the void fraction of the bed at moderate Reynolds number.
ESTIMATION OF MASS TRANSFER COEFFICIENTS IN A PACKED DISTILLATION COLUMN USING BATCH MODE
Adil A. Al-Hemiri and Mohammed D. Selman*
Baghdad University/ Chemical Engineering Department - Thi Qar University /College of Engineering*
This research adopts the estimation of mass transfer coefficient in batch packed bed distillation column as function of physical properties, liquid to vapour molar rates ratio (L / V), relative volatility (α), ratio of vapour and liquid diffusivities (DV / DL), ratio of vapour and liquid densities (ρV / ρL), ratio of vapour and liquid viscosities (µV/ µL).
The experiments are done using binary systems, (Ethanol Water), (Methanol Water), (Methanol Ethanol), (Benzene Hexane), (Benzene Toluene). Statistical program (multiple regression analysis) is used for estimating the overall mass transfer coefficient of vapour and liquid phases (KOV and KOL) in a correlation which represented the data fairly well.
KOV = 3.3 * 10-10 α-0.7 (DV / DL) 0.65 (L / V) 3.5 (ρV / ρL) 1.25 (μV / μL) -5.0
KOL = 2.8 * 10-6 α-0.95 (DV / DL) 0.03 (L / V) 1.15 (ρV / ρL )0.077 (μV / μL) -0.9
In this research a method where the resistances to mass transfer in both phases are accounted for separately through the use of HTU-NTU model for each phase
Z=HTUOV.NTUOV and Z=HTUOL.NTUOL
Results show that both overall vapour and liquid mass transfer coefficient are increased with liquid to vapour molar rates ratio, vapour to liquid diffusivities ratio and vapor to liquid densities ratio, but decreased with increasing the relative volatility and vapour to liquid viscosities ratio.
PARAMETRIC STUDY OF NATURAL CONVECTIVE AND RADIATIVE HEAT TRANSFER IN INCLINED CYLINDRICAL ANNULI
Manal Hadi Al-Hafidh, * Lina S. Safwat
Mech. Engr. Dept., College of Engineering, University of Baghdad
*Mechanical Engineer, Ishtar_l21@yahoo.com
The unsteady state laminar mixed convection and radiation through inclined cylindrical annulus is investigated numerically. The two heat transfer mechanisms of convection and radiation are treated independently and simultaneously. The outer cylinder was kept at a constant temperature while the inner cylinder was heated with constant heat flux. The study involved numerical solution of the governing equations which are continuity, momentum and energy equations using finite difference method (FDM), where the body fitted coordinate system (BFC) was used to generate the grid mesh for computational plane. A computer program (Fortran 90) was built to calculate the bulk Nusselt number (Nub) after reaching steady state condition for fluid Prandtl number fixed at (Pr =0.7) (for air) with radius ratio ( =1.5, 2.6, 5.0), Rayleigh number (0≤Ra≤103),Reynolds number (50≤Re≤2000), dimensionless heat generation (0≤Q≤10), Conduction-Radiation parameter (0≤N≤10), optical thickness (0 ≤ ≤ 10) and different annulus inclination with horizontal plane (0°≤δ≤90°). For the range of parameters considered, results show that radiation enhance heat transfer. It is also indicated in the results that Nu increase with the increasing of inclination angle δ, Ra, Re, and Q. The correlation equations are concluded to describe the radiation effect.
Comparison of the result with the previous work shows a good agreement.
REUSE OF DOMESTIC WASTEWATER FOR IRRIGATION: CONCEPTUAL AND BASIC DESIGN ELEMENTS
Abdul-Fattah Mohamed Ali
Environmental Eng.Dept., College of Eng., Baghdad University
In Iraq, water shortages and drought, especially during the hot summer months, necessitates that municipal authorities adopt water reuse projects like reusing treated domestic wastewater for crop irrigation. This work gives the conceptual and basic design elements for the necessary steps of filtration, UV irradiation and chlorination to make such a wastewater fit for agricultural use. A typical rural community of 50,000 people is considered as an example case for which functionality and relative simplicity of the proposed designs are prime factors. The objectives are 1) to show what is required and 2) that the presented information may be utilized to embark on the following phases of detailed design and execution of such projects.
CORRELATION FOR SOLUTION GAS -OIL RATIO OF IRAQI OILS AT PRESSURES BELOW THE BUBBLE POINT PRESSURE
Omar F. Hassan
Department of Petroleum Engineering-College of Engineering- University of Baghdad
The solution gas-oil ratio is an important measurement in reservoir engineering calculations. The correlations are used when experimental PVT data from particular field are missing. Additional advantages of the correlations are saving of cost and time.
This paper proposes a correlation to calculate the solution gas -oil ratio at pressures below bubble point pressure. It was obtained by multiple linear regression analysis of PVT data collected from many Iraqi fields.
In this study, the solution gas-oil ratio was taken as a function of bubble point pressure, stock tank oil gravity, reservoir pressure, reservoir temperature and relative gas density.
The construction of the new correlation is depending on thirty seven PVT reports that were collected from Iraqi fields.
Statistical and graphical tools have been used to check the performance of the correlation. Correlation performance was also compared with previous published correlations.
The values of solution gas - oil ratio that were calculated from the new correlation have high accuracy when they were compared with the original laboratory data. Also, the results of the new correlation show high precision when compared with Standing , Vasquez and Beggs , Glaso , Al-Marhoun , Petrosky and Farshad , Kartoatmodjo and Schmidt , Velarde, Blasingame and McCain  and Mazandarani and Asghari  correlations.
CRACKING ACTIVITY OF PREPARED Y-ZEOLITE CATALYST USING CUMENE ON FLUIDIZED BED REACTOR
Prof. Dr. Abdul Halim A.K. Mohammed, Rawa Ghassan Yousuf and Karim Khalifa Esgair*
University OF Baghdad, College of Engineering, Chemical Engineering Department,
*Foundation of technical education
The catalytic activity of faujasite type NaY catalysts prepared from local clay (kaolin) with different Si/Al ratio was
studied using cumene cracking as a model for catalytic cracking process in the temperature range of 450-525° C, weight hourly space velocity (WHSV) of 5-20 h1, particle size ≤75µm and atmospheric pressure. The catalytic activity was investigated using experimental laboratory plant scale of fluidized bed reactor.
It was found that the cumene conversion increases with increasing temperature and decreasing WHSV. At 525° C and WHSV 5 h-1, the conversion was 42.36 and 35.43 mol% for catalyst with 3.54 Si/Al ratio and Catalyst with 5.75 Si/Al ratio, respectively, while at 450° C and at the same WHSV, the conversion was decreased to 29.15 and 21.86 mol% respectively, and the catalyst of 5.75 Si/Al ratio gave the higher cumene activity than the catalyst with 3.54 Si/Al ratio.
A PARTICULAR SOLUTION OF THE TWO AND THREE DIMENSIONAL TRANSIENT DIFFUSION EQUATIONS
Chemical Engineering Department – University of Baghdad
A particular solution of the two and three dimensional unsteady state thermal or mass diffusion equation is obtained by introducing a combination of variables of the form,
η = (x+y) / ct , and η = (x+y+z) / ct, for two and three dimensional equations
respectively. And the corresponding solutions are,
and 0 erfc